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Printing Industry & Patent Trolls: Infringement Litigation Issues

4 Apr, 2016 By: Harvey Levenson, Ph.D

At a time when the printing industry is searching for new growth and development opportunities, it now faces new obstacles: patent trolls, the epitome of greed, thoughtlessness, and unethical behavior impacting the survival, growth, and development of printing and related companies.

What is a Patent Troll?

A patent troll is a company or person that purchases a patent and then sues another company claiming that the use of one of its products infringes on the purchased patent.

Trolls attempt to enforce patent rights against alleged infringers far beyond the patent's actual value or contribution to the technology or the industry that the patent represents. Patent trolls typically do not manufacture products or provide services based upon the patents in question. They use patents as “legal weapons,” instead of actually creating any new products or coming up with new ideas to improve business, commerce, or society. Trolls are in the business of threatening and creating litigation.

Further, trolls often buy-up patents cheaply from companies that are looking to monetize patents that have little or no value, or should have not been granted to begin with, because of Prior Art demonstrating that what the patents teach was obvious prior to the time of application for the patent. These patents are subject to an invalidity contention and termination by the United States Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO) when alleged infringers contest the trolls. They are typically very broad, covering generic or well-known types of applications that should never have been patented to begin with.

In possession of these broad and vague patents, the troll then sends out intimidating letters to those they argue infringe on their patents. It is a scare tactic that preys on innocent companies that are merely providing a service needed by society. These letters threaten legal action unless the alleged infringer agrees to pay a licensing fee, which can often range to the tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of dollars. Many who receive infringement letters will choose to pay the licensing-fee out of fear, and because patent litigation is extremely expensive and can involve lengthy and time-consuming court deliberations.

So what is the troll issue in the printing industry in the United States?

Printing Industries of America has been attempting to bring the patent troll issue to the forefront so the printing industry understands what it is facing today and will likely face on an increasing basis in the future unless Congress does something to change the situation.

On its website, Printing Industries of America has established a Patent Listserv for printers seeking advice. In an article entitled, “Patents Infringements Actions in the Printing Industry,” Printing Industries of America wrote, “Printing Industries of America will provide industry firms, especially our members, with current information on infringement accusations. If you have been similarly accused, or know of other actions not listed here, please alert Jim Workman at jworkman@printing.org. You can also participate in our Patent Listserv and seek advice and share information with other printers that have been targeted by trolls.”

The companies impacted by the lawsuits imposed by the patent trolls alleging infringement feel torment, fear, and intimidation. Many have never been faced with lawsuits and are inexperienced in knowing how to deal with the matter. Most cannot afford to hire legal counsel and some are small companies attempting to provide a reasonable living for their employees. The sense of many defendants is that if there is valid infringement, it is the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) that should be held liable, not those to whom the equipment was sold.


Printing and related companies sued by patent trolls should not settle by paying the fees requested and should not enter into a single-company litigation that can cost even more than a settlement. Giving in to patent troll license fees or other demands will exacerbate the problem and encourage additional intimidating and threatening lawsuits in an attempt to extort funds from companies doing honest and legal business, and working hard to survive and grow, and provide employment opportunities for skilled staff members.

I am proposing that a solution is bringing together all of the companies for which a lawsuit has been filed by patent trolls, and to work as a unit in bringing the matter of alleged patent infringements before the US Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO). It is likely, for example, that some patents can be invalidated via Prior Art.


Dr. Harvey R. Levenson is Professor Emeritus & former Department Head of Graphic Communication at Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, Calif. He is a frequent Expert Witness specializing in communication, intellectual property, media, printing, and technology. (Disclaimer: This article excerpt was not sanctioned or funded by any university, private or public company. It is meant to educate and inform.).


About the Author: Harvey Levenson, Ph.D

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